The climacteric period from the Greek language is translated as a “staircase step”. It is a physiological process that is observed in the body of every woman after reaching a certain age. It is accompanied by a decrease and extinction of reproductive function. The ovaries produce fewer sex hormones as a result of the natural aging process and the associated hormonal changes. Menopause is the last menstruation in a woman’s life. However, to say that a woman is in postmenopause can only be done retrospectively, not earlier than 12 months after the last menstruation.
An estimated 25 million women worldwide enter postmenopause every year. Climacteric syndrome definition is, in fact, the symptoms that occur during the transition period and prevent a woman from enjoying the maturity period. About 80% of all women suffer from climacteric syndrome and feel climacteric symptoms to one degree or another.
What is Climacteric Period?
The menopausal period takes a long time: from 45 to 69 years. It consists of several stages. Their age limits and duration depend only on the individual characteristics of the organism. As a rule, the average age of actual menopause onset is 50 – 52 years, but it can begin at the age of 45 to 55 years. During the climacteric period, regulation in the central nervous system changes due to decreased ovarian activity. The production of sex hormones is reduced. As a result, menstruation ceases, marking the irreversible end of the reproductive period.
The first sign of the beginning of the climacteric phase is an irregular menstrual cycle – as a rule, the duration of the cycle increases. Vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes, palpitations, sweating, etc.), which cause the most trouble for a woman, may appear for the first time in this stage of the climacteric period. The onset of hot flashes does not coincide with the time of the last menstruation.
The menopausal period is typically divided into 3 stages:
- Perimenopause is the period since the appearance of irregular menstruation.
- Menopause is a phase that is established retrospectively and begins after a year has passed since the last menstruation.
- Postmenopause begins after the 1-year hiatus in the menstrual cycle (menopause) and lasts up to ten years.
During the physiological process, changes occur at the hormonal level. They are accompanied by a sharp decrease in the quality of life and provoke the development of climacteric syndrome for postmenopausal women.
Causes of the Climacteric Syndrome and Its Consequences
It occurs during menopause and is accompanied by a number of disorders: from neuro-vegetative to psycho-emotional. The reason for their development is fluctuations in sex hormones. They appear against the background of age-related changes in the female body. The following factors can provoke their female climacteric syndrome development:
- past illnesses;
This syndrome is observed in almost half of women during perimenopause, and during menopause, the amount increases up to 70%. With the early onset of menopause – up to 40 years – and the removal of appendages, climacteric syndrome becomes severe.
There are three stages of the climacteric syndrome icd 10:
The main factor in distinguishing stages is the presence of changes in well-being and the number of hot flashes and vasomotor symptoms.
Symptoms of Climacteric Syndrome
Climacteric symptoms are divided into 3 types: early, medium-term (after one to three years after the onset of the postmenopausal period) and late – in five years after the beginning of postmenopause.
- increased irritability and sweating;
- decreased/increased appetite;
- hot flashes;
- the presence of headaches and dizziness;
- heart palpitations;
- blood pressure lability;
Middle-term manifestations include:
- decreased libido;
- the feeling of anxiety and weakness;
- depressive state;
- dry skin and vaginal mucous membranes;
- loss of concentration;
- incomplete control of urination.
Late manifestations are accompanied by the following climacteric symptoms:
- osteoporosis and atherosclerosis;
- diseases of the joints, muscles;
- type II diabetes mellitus, IR;
- decreased cognitive function;
- arterial hypertension;
- hearing and/or visual impairment.
Climacteric Syndrome Treatment
Postmenopausal women who have described above climacteric syndrome symptoms, need to be examined by a number of doctors: from a therapist to an endocrinologist. Sometimes, it is necessary to conduct a differential diagnosis of conditions that are similar to the syndrome but do not apply to it. These include thyroid dysfunction, cardiac IB, menstrual and diencephalic syndromes and some menopausal symptoms.
During menopause, women should monitor blood pressure. It is also recommended to go through:
- examination by a specialist;
- general clinical and biochemical blood tests;
- ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs;
Hormone Replacement Therapy as a Solution
Climacteric disorders are troublesome, but they can and should be combated. Proper nutrition and physical activity, smoking cessation is a healthy lifestyle. But, in most cases, only a lifestyle change does not cope with climacteric syndrome. The main problem is estrogen deficiency, which is why complaints arise. It is possible to fill the estrogen deficiency only from the outside with the help of hormone therapy. It can significantly reduce climacteric symptoms and improve the quality of life of women with menopausal syndrome.
Hormone therapy should meet the individual needs of a woman’s health. Menopausal therapy can effectively reduce the frequency and severity of hot flashes, sweating, insomnia, and complaints caused by dry mucous membranes. So, a woman’s quality of life can improve. In addition, hormone replacement therapy prevents the development of osteoporosis in older women.
What is a climacteric syndrome?
This is symptomatology of varying severity in menopausal women. It can cause a significant deterioration in the quality of life of females and needs qualified treatment that can be prescribed only by a specialist.
Menopause is a decisive factor in the occurrence of the climacteric syndrome, its main cause. A woman going through a period of age-related changes must be observed by a doctor.
What is the climacteric stage of life?
This period covers the age range of 48-55 years. The climacteric period is a natural stage in the life of every woman. It can be accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, which can and should be subject to therapy.
During climacteric, what can cause hot flashes?
A hot flash is called a short-term malfunction in thermoregulation, in which the brain incorrectly interprets signals from nerve endings. The female hormone estrogen takes a direct part in maintaining normal body temperature, and during a climacteric period, with a decrease in estrogen levels, there may be problems with thermoregulation.